1.2-ORIGIN OF the CULTURE pertaining Species to gnero Allium is found in an ample gamma of altitudes and latitudes that include since the Artic Circle tie the European continent, Asia, North America and Africa (Boiteux & Melo, 2004). However, in contrast with the majority of the cultivated plants, the Center exacto of origin of the species. the Sativum still remains obscure, (Boiteux & Melo, 2004). As the onion, the garlic has as origin center the highlands of Central Asia, where a. Longicuspis grows Spontaneous, considered the wild ancestor of the cultivated garlic (Almeida, 2006). India was cultivated in Asia (, Mesopotmia) and in the Egipto it has 3000 years more than, (Almeida, 2006).
To the end of century XV the Spaniard had introduced the garlic in the American continent (Infoagro, 2003), in Brazil, the garlic arrived with the Portuguese, at the time of the discovery (Vilela et all, 2004). In the Old Egipto he was consumed for the popular classrooms, but a coarse food would be considered by the Aristocracy impure (Almeida, 2006). The similarity of the onion, was an important food in the diet of the constructors of the pyramids of Giza (Almeida, 2006). The Garlic was remained as food, condiment and popular medicinal product in the mediterrnica region and Asia (Almeida 2006). 1.3? BOTANICAL TAXINOMIA the classification of the garlic inside of the Allium species sativum L. this perfectly established since the first taxinmico treatment the endowed one for Carl Van Lineu in its book Species Plantarum (1753) (Boiteux & Melo, 2004). However, the positioning correcto of gnero Allium has been controversy reason, being some times classified inside of the Liliaceae family or the Amaryllidaceae (Monocotyledones classroom, Asparagales order), as the emphasis in determined characteristic morphologic, physiological and biochemists (Boiteux & Melo, 2004). More recently, the combination of morphologic and molecular data has strengthened the idea of that about 750 species of gnero allium they belong, of fact, to a family monofiletica- Alliaceae- that is distinct, but narrowly related with the family Amaryllidaceae (Boiteux & Melo, 2004).