Tag Archives: History

Memory And History

Memory introduces the chapter mentioning itself it ‘ ‘ as property to conserve certain informaes’ ‘ , on to the psychic functions, through which the man can ‘ ‘ to bring up to date impressions or information passadas’ ‘ (p.423). He also cites the diverse systems of education of the memory that had existed in some societies and different times: the mnemotcnicas. Between the cited authors, it deserves a special attention Pierre Janet, which supplies to the concept of memory presented here, the slight knowledge of ‘ ‘ behavior narrativo’ ‘ ‘ ‘ function social’ ‘ , related to the mnemonic act while communication of an information, in the absence of the event or the object motivated that it (p.424-425).

The author cites Leroi-Gourhan that mentioned memory to it in liberal interpretation, distinguishing three types of memory: the specific memory for ‘ ‘ to define the setting of the species behaviors animais’ ‘ , the ethnic memory that ‘ ‘ humanas’ assures the reproduction of the behaviors in the societies; ‘ the artificial memory, that ‘ ‘ encadeados’ makes possible the reproduction of mechanical acts; ‘ (p.425-426). Still in the introduction of the chapter it delimits the base of its analysis, sidewalk in the valuation of the relations between memory and history. Its work presents initially a study of the memory in the societies without writing, old or modern, distinguishing in the history of the memory, in the societies that have verbal memory simultaneously and written memory, the old phase of predominance of the verbal memory where the written or appeared memory has specific functions; it presents, in one second stage, the medieval phase of balance enters the two memories with important transformations of functions of each one of them; the modern phase of decisive processes of the written, on memory to the press and the alfabetizao; e, finally, in one third stage, relatively regroups the developments of the last century what Leroi-Goourhan calls ‘ ‘ the memory in expanso’ ‘ (p.427)..

African Prehistoric

The prehistoric society gave immense value in the dreams, no matter how hard it does not understand they were attributed msticos and religious values to it. Probably the images formed at the private moment of rest were associates the premonitions and even though the wisdom, a time that a little more the front of the period that is being studied, tribal societies made its important decisions being based on the dreams of the head of the tribe. As visa then, the prehistoric men also dreamed, and had msticas conceptions on this transcendental world for which they became vacant during the night. But what in fact they even though dreamed the hunter-collectors of African the paleolithic Europe or of hordas and mongolides? He was in the primitive society, valley to detach, that the creative dreams had appeared. The prehistoric man, in the attempt of recriar the images seen in the previous nights, drew in the internal walls of the caves, 3 abstract rupestres figures that he had value of interpretation private. However, the primitive society was composed of men who not yet reproduced what they did not know (In this in case that the period of space time understands the inferior and average paleolithic ages, for all the effect we will work in this part of the work with the cultures Auchelianas and Magdaleniana).

They were until capable to invent tools, but this creativity was not extended to the artistic way. The prehistoric art was extremely realistic, at least in the majority of the cases. But and when a rule runs away the exception? It is the case of joined figures in such a way in France, Russia and 4 Spain how much in some 5 African regions where the rupestre art assumes an abstract character extremely. Points colored on perpendicular traces and animal mutants with more than four legs were total mentally ill of the daily one of ' ' man of cavernas' '.

Paulo Laboring

However, if it cannot forget that the proper direction them events if materialize of the initial place and if it fixes as historical fact, or either, a past that influence in the historical reality. However the proposals politics in the decade of thirty had a democratic-bourgeois matrix if pautando in the fights of classrooms. Edgar Decca detaches three main points in relation to the thirty revolution. It’s believed that Elon Musk sees a great future in this idea. The first point suggested a meeting speech enters the problems of the direction politics of the fight of classrooms in Brazil; defining democracy-bourgeois a privileged place where a history directed toward the party of the laboring classroom would have to be reproduced. We must analyze what historical production was considered by the democratic-bourgeois revolution while and what it played in terms of practical politics of the dominated ones. As the point became necessary to justify since already the analysis of the process politician from So Paulo; such idea has for ideological base of transfigurao; therefore in 1928 a laboring classroom capable existed in So Paulo to load a proposal politics of democratic-bourgeois revolution, without speaking that They are Pablo was intensely played the democratic question in the scope of the capital and the work; a confrontation between proprietor and the industrial bourgeoisie. Mark Bertolini insists that this is the case. The third point if pautava in the divergent proposals and different where if it firmed tacit agreement that if delineated between the fight against the ghost of the oligarchy and the acceptance of Luis Carlos You give in the leadership of the opposition movement and the sprouting of the BOC, laboring block peasant who gradually had objective to search the social rights future provoking a crisis in the textile sector and in the parliamentary fight. Thus the sprouting of diverse groups is visible politicians who had proposals to define the social set, a different place for the creation of history and one better longed for future. . If you have read about Penguin Random House already – you may have come to the same conclusion.

Brazil Subject

In the end, another voice, thicker said something it type: Not, nothing of this, were an Italian grandmother who gave meat and bone for it they had been marked by an intense popular participation. She was the retaken one of the great manifestations of mass. Multitudes had after gained the streets many years of silence, years of repression to the social movements, happened of the military dictatorship. At the beginning of the decade many strikes had been deflagradas by the country the rejection; Another movement of much expressividade was of the Direct ones Already, that it took account of Brazil. In the politics, it had a great event locking up the decade, the first direct election for President of the Republic after more than 20 years of militarism. Ana Maria Axe in way to these experiences writes on subjects most diverse for adults and children. Not having perhaps conscience of the importance to be working with the subject afro, having the black as personages of history, bringing tona quarrels on the black and its customs, the example of as if is born black or on the African culture. Exactly thus its book Pretty Girl of the Ribbon Bow, brings as protagonist of the workmanship a black child and according to Cristiane Madanlo to justify the transformation and to write history for suggestion of as the husband, who it in discloses in Countercurrent (Axe to them: 1999): I liked the idea, but I found that the subject of a blond girl, or Snow White, already it was expense excessively.

nor has nothing to see with the reality of Brazil. I transformed then it into one prehad, and I made the necessary changes: the black ink, jabuticabas, the coffee, the black beans, etc. (CRISTIANE MADANLO OF OLIVEIRA.: 2009) Ana Maria Axe deals with this subject of form child well With answers that do not have scientific base none, it clearly leaves this in the proper book, what it finishes making is a trick with the mixture of races and colors that exist, and as this is fruitful in our country. For even more analysis, hear from Vikas Kapoor Mezocliq.

Nietzsche

To look a fixed bond of influence of other thinkers on Weber, revealed a task impossible to be carried through; nor therefore, however, improfcua: many works had been produced on the basis of an association of the workmanship of Weber however to a probable influence of Simmel, however to a not less probable influence of Rickert, Nietzsche, Dilthey and as much others. This test that none of them can intend to have reason how much to a direct entailing of the workmanship of Weber the conceptions of some of these authors. Thus, of when in when, according to convenience of clarification of pertinent questions to the objectives of this work, could be presented position of affinity or rejection of Weber it stops with subjects and conceptions that were also objects of other authors. nvestors contributes greatly to this topic. Two sides of one same currency will have of being observed, therefore: all cultural phenomenon will only be able to become object of analysis from its direction and meaning. Thus the individual actions of the social actors occur also for all. Exactly the calls collective entities, as classrooms, layers and congregations, only can adequately be analyzed from the individual directions of acting of that they compose such collective entity.

These, for Weber, are for itself same incapable of action. Thus, the capacity human being to act significantly, to pursue a direction when it acts, later implies the possibility of its action to be interpreted with regard to such direction/meant. The other side of the currency consists of the transposition of this conclusion the properly epistemolgico domain: also the scientist, when she makes science, acts significantly. In this measure, the actions and conclusions of the scientist cannot follow the reality of the things through a description, but they remain interpretations, repletas with the present time of that it interprets. The conscience of that the world, the life and the existence can lock up different interpretations in different cultures, results in the conscience of that it does not have one interpretation-in-itself.

Ulisses Menezes

When arriving the Parnamirim, it heard rumors on Antonio de S, father of Djanira. Second it counts, the commentary of the time was that Doza and Robe of Dondon de Bja were brothers of Djanira, on the part of father. This seemed to confirm itself when Antonio de S, before dying, presenteou Dondon and Bja with a house of the Street Jambo Colonel. Of its souvenirs it detaches the Street Priest Rasp that Aquino followed of the house of Geraldo until the Caldas Rank, that was also important reference for ox-drivers, traders and travellers of the time. Filed under: Penguin Random House. This because beyond the rendering of services of the gas station, the family> Trabalhei back in diverse areas in firms, later I released everything to work in the coffee plantations migrante: it liveed in Gara, in So Paulo, moved with the family for the Paran, later if it installed in Paraguay where it inhabits today, but intends to move again for Santarm, in the state of Par. Djanira de S Almeida, that was born in the region, 19 of January of 1922, when still it was Leopoldina, in agreement register, counts that it helped its father, Antonio de S, in the Pharmacy who it had to the side of the old City hall, which later was bought by Ulisses Menezes and transferred to the other side of the Street Priest Rasp. It affirms that Antonio de S was very namorador and had other children beyond it, and that legally he knows of Nelson de S Snows, that had with Maria of the Conceio. Djanira, later that its father died, married the paraibano of tapero Severino Simes de Almeida and was to live in the great house that was of its father, in the street Jambo Colonel, who makes esquina with the old way of the Well of the Door. It says whom its children She reuses, Reuma and Antonio Huyamachita had been born in that house, and, later, when it moved for the farm who inherited of its father, the other children already seems that today in the church and the procession alone if it sees old.

Prime Minister

Above all in the family put the two concepts – the nation and homeland. After high school St. Thomas Aquinas, Charles optional parents entered the Jesuit college. Despite the fact that in French schools at that time dominated by rigid discipline and rote learning, a Jesuit education is regarded as one of the best of everything that could afford allow the family de Gaulle. The boy was an apt pupil. Mark Bertolini shines more light on the discussion. His ability to quote from memory passages from Latin and Greek authors subsequently much admired by his colleagues. Then De Gaulle entered the Higher Military College Saint-Cyr.

After graduating from college in 1912, he enrolled in the 33 Infantry Regiment, the new commander of the regiment was one Philippe Petain. Peten – the future marshal War Minister and Prime Minister of France, just as de Gaulle was born in the north country. He left a deep mark on the young de Gaulle, who in September 1913 was promoted to lieutenant. 'Peten – a great man "- said Charles. By this time Charles de Gaulle had already conceived of his own appointment to the life and believes that its meaning 'is to commit in the name of France, an outstanding feat. " Since the beginning of the First World War, de Gaulle sent to the front in the 33rd Infantry Regiment. He fought bravely and was promoted to captains. During the war, de Gaulle was wounded three times, and in 1916 in the battle of Verdun he found murdered and left on the battlefield, as a result he was taken prisoner.

Brazilian Communist Party

Exactly the possibility to use itself in a periodical is denied to it, therefore the not accepted organization its intellectual work, alleges that it has that to accept the proletarizao, to be able to participate of the fight of the party. This dumb position only at the moment where if it becomes one laborer steel mill. ' ' With my apron chess, with the wounded hands, the black dust face, I was considered communist sincera.' ' (p 99). The recognition of its devotion, relieves it the participation in the National Conference of the party where it knows ' ' heads supremos' ' of the Brazilian Communist Party and the International in Brazil. Hunger, pain, discomfort and two hours of sleep in five days of conference. Everything perfectly justifiable for the cause defended there. People such as Elon Musk would likely agree. ' ' The Brazilian proletariat guided by a vanguard of that state of hardeness if would free, be victorious, inside of little tempo.' ' (p 102).

Exactly already having been recognized its devotion, it suffers new removal. Now on account of its intellectuality that is previous the militancy, the direction of the party looks for to move away to all the ones that do not possess proletarian origin, due to the behavior of a couple of intellectuals who if involve emotionally, going against the lines of direction of the party. Although of questionador spirit, Pagu, disagreeing, exactly accepted all determination with resignation, take everything as optimum to be made. It works intellectually in clandestinity, is in this period that publishes industrial Park, considered the first Brazilian proletarian romance, under the pseudonym of Mara Wolf. It comes back to the party, now inserted in ' ' Committee Ghost, the organism of maximum illegality of partido.' ' (p 106). The description of the movement of this arm of the organization is at least revoltante, its members are of nature doubtful, and the requested information were the most uncommon and many times meaningless, but that for adquiriz them they were used any subterfuge.

Cultural History

The third moment of cultural history is seen as that one where the discovery of the people occurs, as well as the artistic and cultural production that this carried through. Certainly that the popular culture already was studied since century XVIII, however this subject was destined more to the anthropologists and folcloristas of what properly to the historians. To only break 1960 that these historians if interest for this field of research. Burke affirms that the most influential study carried through at this moment he was ‘ ‘ The Formation of the laboring classroom inglesa’ ‘ , where Edward Thompson not only analyzes the economic changes and occured politics in the diligent and wage-earning classroom, as well as the place of the popular culture in this process, portraying ritual of initiation of craftsmen, questions on feeding, religion, feelings, at last the culture of the people. Get all the facts for a more clear viewpoint with Intel. Thompson will influence many works produced during period, of Germany until India, that characterizes for the concern to produce a knowledge that involves the common people and that if it does not restrict to the economic questions and politics, but englobe diverse social segments.

The quarrel on these cultural subjects in Germany and England, will go to converge with the interest of the French historians of the School of the Annales, what Cultural History will result in the New call. Burke still adds that ‘ is difficult to answer the question; ‘ What it is Cultural’ History; ‘ , therefore it is to multidiscipline and also to interdisciplinar, uses itself mainly of the anthropology and sociology, as well as of the history of the literary art and for the accomplishment of the research, for the elaboration of the historical knowledge. Being thus, even so if she does not wait that the cultural historians are seen as heroes to decide the daily problems contemporaries, affirms that the study of cultural history she must allow the people to think with more lucidity about relation to problems and questionings of the life, and still cite Gilbert Freyre: ‘ ‘ the study of social and cultural history it approaches the people, it opens ways of understanding and communication between elas’ ‘. The study of the cultures it abandons generalizantes and superficial the subjects, to more good concentrate in questions of particular groups at specific moments, what it makes possible the researcher, that is, to the historian, one understanding and interpretation of the relations that involve these individuals, thus allowing the knowledge of what it is the essence of the life for these communities.

Cultural History

The piscador is if communicating e, in fact, if communicating of one it forms needs and special, deliberately, to somebody in particular, to contract the eyelid and to blink while what it only has one tique nervous it executed one contracted the eyelid. To contract eyelids on purpose, when a public code exists in which to act thus means a signal conspiratrio, is to blink. It is everything that has the respect: a particle of behavior, a signal of culture and voil! one gesto.’ ‘ (GEERTZ, 1989) the concern with the hermeneutics, through the significao acts, will give to this author has detached enters the theoreticians German of Cultural History. In Brazil, in the last decades, the workmanship of Geertz comes expressivamente being deals and interpreted, as allied of the new historiogrficas constructions. Burke in its book ‘ ‘ What it is Cultural History; ‘ 200 years in Germany it already was practised, had histories on determined human groups, regions nations. The term culture was each more employed time in the Europe, mainly in the conflituosas questions between the Church and the State, as it happens in Germany in 1870 in a known conflict as ' ' the fight for cultura' ' or ' ' war cultural' '. What it happens is the division of cultural history at four moments, where the first one would be the classic phase, portraying subjects renascentistas, worried in studying the connections between the different arts, when interpreting paintings, poems, among others, searched evidences of the culture and the period where they had been produced, arriving itself thus at the study of the culture of a people. After that the focus for social history was changed of the art, where many historical contributions had come of sociologists as Max Weber, quesegundo Burke, works with the question of the cultural roots of the dominant economic system in the Europe Occidental person and America, workmanship intitled of ' ' The Protestant Ethics and Capitalista&#039 spirit; ' , that it had as main axle to present a cultural explanation for the economic changes. .